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Job Time Study
Time study is a work measurement technique for recording the times of performing a certain specific job or its elements carried out under specified conditions, and for analyzing the data so as to obtain the time necessary for an operator to carry it out at a defined rate of performance.

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Time study equipment

If time studies are to be made, certain items of equipment are essential. Basic time study equipment consists of:
- a stop-watch;
- a study board;
- time study forms;
although any or all of these may be replaced with electronic equivalents as will be indicated later on.

The study person will need to be carrying the timing and recording devices whenever a time study is made. In addition, in the study office, there must be facilities for assisting with the analysis of the time study. These may vary from a small calculator to a personal computer.

Other measuring instruments will be required from time to time to obtain data on the work being measured ? most work study offices will have (access to) such devices as tape measures, steel rules, micrometers, spring balances, and so on. In addition, the office should have a clear, reliable clock with a second hand for recording study start and finish times.

Steps in making a time study

When the work to be measured has been selected, the making of a time study usually consists of the following eight steps:

(1) Obtaining and recording all the information available about the job, the operative and the surrounding conditions, which is likely to affect the carrying out of the work.

(2) Recording a complete description of the method, breaking down the operation into "elements".

(3) Examining the detailed breakdown to ensure that the most effective method and motions are being used, and determining the sample size.

(4) Measuring with a timing device (usually a stop-watch) and recording the time taken by the operative to perform each "element" of the operation.

(5) At the same time, assessing the effective speed of working of the operative relative to the observer's concept of the rate corresponding to standard rating.

(6) Extending the observed times to "basic times".

(7) Determining the allowances to be made over and above the basic time for the operation.

(8) Determining the "standard time" for the operation.


C.R.Wynne- Roberts and George Kanawaty, Introduction to Work Study, International Labour Office. You can obtain this amazing book here

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